Canon of the Old Testament (2023)

During the Reformation, Protestants removed seven books from the Old Testament (1 and 2 Mackabiere, Sirach, Wisdom, Baruch, Tobit and Judith) during the Reformation and parts of two others (Daniel and Esther), although these books have been the beginning of church historyconsidered canonical.

As the Protestant church historian J. N. D. Kelly writes: “It should be observed that the Old Testament, which was approved in the church as relevant, was somewhat bulky and more comprehensive [than the Protestant Bible] -called apocrypha or deuterocanonic books with different degrees of recognition (called apocryphic or deerocanonic books) (Early Christian teachings53).

In the following we give patronic quotes from each of the Deuterocanonic books. Take a look at how the fathers cited these books together with the loganonicals.

The earliest official canon lists are also included. In addition to the brevity, they are not completely given.toThe books andonlyThe books in the modern Catholic Bible.

(Note: Some books of the Bible are among more than one name.. This confusing nomenclature is explained in more detail in Catholic Bible comments.))

Der Didache

"You must not fluctuate with regard to your decisions [Sir.1: 28].((Didache4: 5 [ca.A. D. 70]).


"Since [Christ] was therefore about to manifest and suffer in the meat, his suffering was present. The prophet speaks against evil:" Woe to your soul because you advised an evil advice against yourself "[ISA.3: 9], say: "Let us bind the just man because he displeasures."[WIS.2: 12.] ”(Letter from Barnabas6: 7 [ca.75]).


"Through the word of his power [God] he established all things, and through his word he can overthrow her." Who should tell him: "What did you do?"Or who should resist the power of his strength?" [WiS.12: 12] "(Hire the Corinthians27: 5 [ca.A. D. 80]).


"So quickly stand in these things and follow the example of the Lord, who is firm and unchangeable in faith and love the brotherhood [1 pet. 2: 17] .... If you can do good, don't move it,Because "Almoses delivers from death" [Tob.4: 10, 12: 9].And the Lord cannot be blasphemed by you, but he hurt to him from which the name of the Lord blasphemes [ISA 52: 5]!"(Brief an die Philadelphianer10 [ca.135]).


"This ... who is assumed that they are of many presbyters, but serve their own desires and do not put the fear of God in their hearts, but rather behavior with contempt towards others and with pride to keep the headquarters[Matt.23: 6] and work bad acts in secret and say that "nobody sees us" is convicted by the word, which does not appear to the outside or look at the face, but the heart; and it; and itwill hear these words that can be found in Daniel to the prophet: "O you seeds Kanaaner and not from Juda, beauty deceived you and your lust perverted your heart" [Dan.13: 56].have become, now their sins that they have committed should not be the innocent and just kill '[Dan.13: 52, citing ex.23: 7]Against heresia4: 26: 3 [approx.D. 190]; dan.13 is not in the Protestant Bible).


"Jeremiah, the Prophet, pointed out that as many believers as God have prepared for this purpose, to be the other on Earth, both under the rule of the saints and to serve this [new] Jerusalem and that [his]. The kingdom will be in it and say: "Look in Jerusalem to the east and see the joy that God comes to the west .... God will proceed with you in the light of his splendor with the mercy and justice that proceeds from him. 4: 36-5: 9] ”(ibid. 5: 35: 1 [approx. 190];Baruch was often seen as part of Jeremiah as it is here).


“What is told here [in the history of Susannah] happened at a later date, even though it is placed on the front of the book [by Daniel], because it was a custom with the authors, many things in an inverted order inan inverted order to tell writings .... [W] I should be observed, loved, for fear that someone will be overhauled in every transition and risk the loss of his soul, and know how we do that God the judge of everyoneis, and the word itself the eye that has done nothing, what is done, what is done in the world.Commentary for Daniel6 [a.d.204]; the story of Susannah [Dan.13] is not in the Protestant Bible).


"So, also, Daniel, when he had to commit, the idol Bel, whom the people and the king then worshiped in order to say the honor of his God to claim God, who created the heaven and the earth '[Dan 14: 5]" (Letters55: 5 [A.D.252]; Dan.14 is not in the Protestant Bible).


"In Genesis [it says]:" And God tested Abraham and said to him: "Take your only son you love, Isaak, and go to the high country and offer him there as a burned offer ..." ..."[Gen 22: 1-2] ... of the same thing in the wisdom of Solomos [it is said]:" Although they have suffered quales in the sight of men, their hope is full of immortality ... "[Wis.3:4].. From the same thing in the maccaes [it is called], did not become faithful to Abraham during the rehearsal and it was expected to do justice "[1 MACC.2: 52; see Jas.2: 21-23] (Treatises7: 3: 15 [a.d.248]).

Council of Rome

"Now we have to treat the divine writings, which the universal Catholic Church should accept and what it should avoid.Book; Deuteronomy, a book; Joshua [son of] nave, a book; Richter, a book; Ruth, a book; kings, four books [that is, 1 and 2 Samuel and 1 and 2 kings]; Paralipomenon [chronicles],Two books; psalms, a book; Solomon, three books: proverbs, a book; preacher, a book; canticles of canticles, a book; as well as wisdom a book; ecclesiasticus, a book ... as well as the order of historical [Books]: Job, a book; Tobit, a book; Estras, two books [Ezra and Nehemiah]; Esther, a book; Judith, a book; Makkabäer, two books ”(Decree of the Papstdamasus[Display. 382]).

Council of Hippo

"[It was decided] that nothing is read in addition to the canonical writings in the church under the name of the divine script.Richter, Ruth, The Kings, Four Books, the Chronicles, two books, the job, the Psalter, the five books of Solomon, the twelve books of the Prophet, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Hesekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Ezra,Two books, Mackabeans, two books ... “” (Canon 36 [A. D. 393]).


"The entire canon of the Holy Writings, in which we say that the consideration should be applied, is included in these books: the five of Moses ... and a book by Joshua [son] Nave, one of judges; a small bookmeans Ruth ... then the four of the kingdoms and the two paralipomenone .... [t] here are also others, from a different order ... such as job and tobit and Esther and Judith and the two books of macabods as well as the twofrom Esdras ... then there are the prophets in which there is a book of David's psalms and three of Solomon ... but in relation to these two books, one of which bears wisdom and the other bears the title Ecclesiasticusand which are referred to as "solomon" due to a certain similarity to its books, it is certainly determined that they were written by Jesus Sirach. However, they have to be taken into account among the prophetic books because the authority that deservedly accrediterst is tOn Christian instructions2: 8: 13 [ca.A. D. 395]).


"God converted [King Asuerus] and converted the outrage of the latter into gentleness.15: 11]" (About the grace of Christ and the original sin1:24:25 [A.D.418]; this passage is not in the Protestant Bible).


"We have in the books of the Maccabare [2 Macc 12: 43] This victim was offered for the dead, but even if it was not found anywhere in the Old Testament, the authority of the Catholic Church, which is clear on this pointHave their place ”(About the care that should be included for the dead1: 3 [a.d.421]).

Council of Carthage

"[It was decided] that nothing apart from the canonical sacred writings in the church should be read under the name of the divine script. But the canonical writings are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Richter, Ruth, FourBooks by kings, Paralipomenon, two books, job, the psalter of David, five books by Solomon [Proverbs, preacher, song Oflieder, wisdom, sirach], twelve books of the Prophet, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Hesekiel, Tobit, Judith,Esther, two books by Estras, two books of the MaccaBees ... "" (Canon 47 [A. D. 397]).

Apostolic constitutions

"Now women are also predicted by Old, Miriam, the sister of Moses and Aaron [Ex.15: 20] and after their Deborah [Richter.4: 4] and after these Huldah [2 kg.22: 14] and Judith [Judith 8], the former under Josiah and the latter under Darius ”(Apostolic constitutions8: 2 [ca.400)).


"What sin did I commit when I follow the judgment of the churches? But the one who raises the indictment against me because he [in my foreword to the book Daniel] the objections regarding the Hebrews regarding the history of Susannah [Dannot to be raised.13] The song of the three children [Dan.3: 24-90] and the story of Bel and the dragon [Dan 14], which cannot be found in the Hebrew bandis not associated with my personal views, but the comments that they should not make against us. In the interest of the short, I did not answer their views in my foreword so that I did not write a foreword, but aBook, I think I immediately added the remark because I said: "This is not the time to discuss such matters" (Gegen rufinius11:33 [a.d.401]).

Innocent I

"A brief addition shows which books are really recorded in the canon, which are the things that they wanted to be verbally informed: from Moses, five books, ie from Genesis, of Exodus, from Leviticus, Number, from Deuteronomy, andJoshua, from judges, a book, from Kings, four books and also Ruth from the Prophet, sixteen books by Solomon, five books, the psalms.Judith, one, the Makkabäer, two, from Esdras, two, Paralipomenon, two books ... ”(Nach exuperius7 [a.d.405]).

African code

"[It was decided] that nothing is read in addition to the canonical writings in the church under the name of the divine script.Richter, Ruth, The Kings, Four Books, The Chronicles, Two Books, Job, The Psalter, The Five Books of Solomon, The twelve books of the Prophet, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Hesekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Ezra, twoBooks, Mackabeans, two books ... let this be sent to our brother and bishop [Pope] Boniface and the other bishops of these parts so that you can confirm this canon, from which we have to be read by our fathers in the church.“(Canon 24 [A. D. 419]).

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